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An ester of vitamin A (retinoic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) that functions as an antioxidant that seems to have a particular affinity for skin and its lipids, making it an effective topical option for improving skin's defense against environmental damage. This mix also shows greater stability in skin than when retinol or vitamin C are used alone.
References for this information:
Pharmazie, October 2005, pages 794-795
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, November-December 2004, issue 6, pages 274-282
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, August 2004, issues 1-2, pages 113-124
About the Experts
Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paula’s Choice Skincare. Paula’s expertise has led to hundreds of appearances on national and international radio, print, and television including:
The Paula's Choice Research Team is dedicated to busting beauty myths and providing expert advice that solves your skincare frustrations so you can have the best skin of your life!