Titanium Dioxide at a Glance
- Used as a thickening, opacifying, pigment, and sunscreen ingredient
- Protects against both UVA and UVB rays
- Gentle enough even for sensitive, redness-prone skin
- Deemed safe as used in cosmetics products
Titanium Dioxide Description
Titanium dioxide is an inert earth mineral used as a thickening, opacifying, and sunscreen ingredient in cosmetics. It protects skin from UVA and UVB radiation and is considered non-risky in terms of of skin sensitivity. Because it is gentle, titanium dioxide is a great sunscreen active for sensitive, redness-prone skin. It’s great for use around the eyes, as it is highly unlikely to cause stinging.
There are two primary forms of titanium dioxide commercially available: anatase and rutile. The rutile form is typically used in sunscreens due to its superior ability to handle UV rays and stability in the presence of UV light. The anatase form is typically used in other types of products, such as paint. Another plus of the rutile form is that its UVA protection extends past 400 nanometers, which is the upper limit of UVA.
Titanium dioxide is typically micronized and coated for use in cosmetics products. The micronizing makes this somewhat heavy-feeling ingredient easier to spread on skin, plus a bit more cosmetically elegant. Micronized titanium dioxide is much more stable and can provide better sun protection than non-micronized titanium dioxide.
Micronized titanium dioxide doesn't penetrate skin so there’s no need to be concerned about it getting into your body. Even when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used, the molecular size of the substance used to coat the nanoparticles is large enough to prevent them from penetrating beyond the uppermost layers of skin. This means you’re getting the sun protection titanium dioxide provides with no risk of it causing harm to skin or your body.
The coating process improves application, enhances sun protection, and prevents the titanium dioxide from interacting with other ingredients in the presence of sunlight, thus enhancing its stability. It not only makes this ingredient much more pleasant to use for sunscreen, but also improves efficacy and eliminates safety concerns. Common examples of ingredients used to coat titanium dioxide are alumina, dimethicone, silica, and trimethoxy capryl silane.
Titanium dioxide as used in sunscreens is commonly modified with other ingredients to ensure efficacy and stability. Examples of what are known as surface modifier ingredients used for titanium dioxide include stearic acid, isostearic acid, polyhydroxystearic acid, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer.
Some websites maintain titanium dioxide is inferior to zinc oxide, another mineral sunscreen ingredient whose core characteristics are similar to those of titanium dioxide. The reality is that titanium dioxide is a great broad-spectrum SPF ingredient and is widely used in all manner of sun-protection products. What gets confusing for some consumers is trying to decipher research that ranks sunscreen ingredients by a UV spectrum graph. By most standards, broad-spectrum coverage for sunscreen ingredients is defined as one that surpasses 360 nanometers (abbreviated as “nm” - how the sun’s rays are measured). Titanium dioxide exceeds this range of protection, but depending on whose research you read, it either performs as well as or slightly below zinc oxide.
It’s true that titanium dioxide does not rank as high for UVA protection as zinc oxide, it ends up being a small difference (think about it like being 10 years old versus 10 years and 3 months old). This is not easily understood in terms of other factors affecting how sunscreen actives perform (such as the base formula), so many, including some dermatologists, assume that zinc oxide is superior to titanium dioxide for UVA protection. When carefully formulated, titanium dioxide provides excellent UVA protection. Its UVA protection peak is lower than that of zinc oxide, but both continue to provide protection throughout the UVA range for the same amount of time.
One final note: titanium dioxide comes in the form of a white powder and is sometimes used in cosmetics to adjust a color to a lighter shade. This is also why it can produce a white cast when used in mineral-only sunscreen formulas.
Titanium Dioxide References
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, February 2021, pages 532-537
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, June 2020
Journal of Nanoparticle Research, March 2020
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, November 2019, pages 34-46
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, November 2019, pages 442-446
Journal of Cosmetic Science, September 2019, pages 223-234
Materials, July 2019, pages 1–24
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, and Photomedicine, April 2011, pages 58-67
Skin Therapy Letter, July-August 2008, pages 5-7
Environmental and Health Perspectives, July 2008, pages 893
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About the Experts
Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paula’s Choice Skincare. Paula’s expertise has led to hundreds of appearances on national and international radio, print, and television including:
The Paula's Choice Research Team is dedicated to busting beauty myths and providing expert advice that solves your skincare frustrations so you can have the best skin of your life!